In another thread two of the three treaties above were mentioned, so I thought it might be a good idea to post them here for discussion by the forum.
If anything has been left out or the below copies are incorrect, please post the correction.
Treaty of Campo Formio
His Majesty the Emperor of the Romans, King of Hungary and of Bohemia, and the French Republic, wishing to consolidate the peace of which the foundations were laid in the preliminaries signed at the château of Ekenwald near Léoben in Styria, April 18, 1797 (29 Germinal, Year V, of the French Republic, one and indivisible), have appointed for their Plenipotentiaries, to wit:
1. There shall be for the future and forever a firm and inviolable peace between His Majesty the Emperor of the Romans, King of Hungary and of Bohemia, his heirs and successors, and the French Republic. . .
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3. His Majesty the Emperor, King of Hungary and of Bohemia, renounces for himself and his successors, in favor of the French Republic, all his rights and titles to the former Belgic Provinces, known under the name of the Austrian Low Countries. The French Republic shall possess these countries forever, in complete sovereignty and proprietorship, and with all the territorial advantages which result therefrom.
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5. His Majesty the Emperor, King of Hungary and of Bohemia, consents that the French Republic should possess in complete sovereignty the former Venetian Islands of the Levant, to wit: Corfu, Zante, Cephalonia, Santa Maura, Cerigo, and other islands dependent upon them, as well as Butrinto, Arta, Vonizza, and in general all the former Venetian establishments in Albania, which are situated below the Gulf of Drin.
6. The French Republic consents that His Majesty the Emperor and King should possess in complete sovereignty and proprietorship the countries hereinafter designated, to wit: Istria, Dalmatia, the former Venetian Islands of the Adriatic, the mouths of the Cattaro, the city of Venice, the lagunes and countries included between the hereditary States of His Majesty the Emperor and King, the Adriatic Sea, and a line which setting out from Tyrol shall follow the stream beyond Gardola, and shall cross the Lake of Garda, to Cise; from there a military line to San Giocomo, offering an equal advantage to the two parties, which shall be marked out by engineering officers appointed by both parties before the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty. The line of limitation shall then pass the Adige at San Giocomo, shall follow the left bank of that river to the mouth of the Blanc canal, including the part of Porto Lignano which is upon the right bank of the Adige, with the district to a radius of three thousand toises. The line shall continue by the left bank of the Blanc canal, the left bank of the Tartaro, the left bank of the canal called the Polisella to its juncture with the Po, and the left bank of the great Po to the sea.
7. His Majesty the Emperor, King of Hungary and of Bohemia, renounces forever, for himself, his successors and assigns, in favor of the Cisalpine Republic, all rights and titles springing from these rights, which his said Majesty could lay claim to over the countries which he possessed before the war, and which now make part of the Cisalpine Republic, which shall possess them in complete sovereignty and proprietorship, with all the territorial advantages which result therefrom.
8. His Majesty the Emperor, King of Hungary and of Bohemia, recognizes the Cisalpine Republic as an independent power. . . .
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18. His Majesty the Emperor, King of Hungary and of Bohemia, binds himself to cede to the Duke of Modena, as indemnity for the countries which that Prince and his heirs had in Italy, the Breisgau, which he shall possess upon the same conditions as those in virtue of which he possessed Modena.
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20. There shall be held at Rastadt a Congress composed exclusively of the Plenipotentiaries of the Germanic Empire and of those of the French Republic for the pacification between these two Powers. This shall be opened one month after the signature of the present treaty, or sooner if it is possible.
1. His Majesty the Emperor, King of Hungary and of Bohemia, consents that the limits of the French Republic shall extend to the line designated below and pledges himself to use his good offices in order that, in establishing peace with the German Empire, the French Republic may obtain this same boundary, to wit: The left bank of the Rhine from the Swiss frontier below Basle to the confluence of the Nette above Andernach, including the tete de Pont at Mannheim on the right bank of the Rhine and the town and tortress of Mainz, both banks of the Nette, from its mouth to its source near Bruch, from here a line passing through Senscherode and Borlei to Kerpen and from this town to Udelhofen, Blankenheim, Marmagen, Jactenigt, Gale and Gmiind, including the suburbs and surrounding districts of these places, then the two banks of the Olff to its junction with the Roer, the two banks of the Roer including Heimbach, Niedeggen, Düren, and Jülich, with their suburbs and surrounding districts as well as the villages on the river and their surrounding districts as far as Limnich; from here a line passing Roffems and Thalens, Dalen, Hilas, Papdermod, Laterforst, Radenberg, Haversloo (if this lies upon the line), Anderheide, Kalderkirchen, Wambach, Herringen and Grobray with the town of Venloo and its surrounding territory. If, in spite of the good offices of His Majesty the Emperor, King of Hungary and of Bohemia, the German Empire should not consent to the acquisition by the French Republic of the frontier above indicated, His Majesty the Emperor and King formerly engages not to furnish more than his contingent to the army of the Empire, which may not be employed in the fortresses without thereby interfering with the peace and amity just established between his said Majesty and the French Republic.
2. His Majesty the Emperor, King of Hungary and of Bohemia, will further use his good offices during the negotiations for peace with the German Empire in order that, First, the navigation of the Rhine shall be free to the French Republic and to the states of the Empire situated on the right bank of this river from Hüningen to the point where it reaches the Batavian Republic;
Secondly, to arrange that the one in possession of that part of Germany opposite the mouth of the Moselle shall never upon any pretext whatsoever hinder the free navigation and exit of boats or other craft from the mouth of the river;
Thirdly, that the French Republic shall enjoy the free navigation of the Meuse, and that all tolls and other dues which may be established from Venloo to the point where the river enters Batavian territory; shall be suppressed.
3. His Majesty the Emperor and King, renounces, on his own part and for his successors, the sovereignty over, and possession of, the County of Falkenstein and its dependencies, in favor of the French Republic.
4. The territories which His Majesty the Emperor, King of Hungary and of Bohemia, is to possess in virtue of Article VI of the oopen, definitive treaty signed this day, shall serve as an indemnity for those territories which he cedes by Articles III and VII of the open treaty and by the preceding article. This cession shall not, however, have force until the troops of His Majesty the Emperor and King shall occupy the territory acquired by the said article.
5. The French Republic will employ its good offices in order that His Majesty the Emperor may acquire in Germany the Archbishopric of Salzburg, and that portion of the Circle of Bavaria situated between the Archbishopric of Salzburg, the rivers Inn and Salzach and Tyrol, including the city of Wasserburg on the right bank of the Inn, with the surrounding territory within a radius of 3000 toises.
6. His Majesty the Emperor and King agrees to cede to the French Republic, when peace shall be concluded with the Empire, the sovereignty and possession of the Frickthal, as well as all the possessions of the House of Austria on the left bank of the Rhine between Zurzach and Basle, provided that in the above-mentioned peace His Majesty shall obtain a proportionate compensation in Germany which shall be satisfactory.
The French Republic shall unite the said districts to the Helvetian Republic, according to an arrangement to be made between the said countries, without prejudice, however, to His Majesty the Emperor and King, or to the Empire.
7. It is understood between the two contracting powers that if, in arranging the pending peace with the German Empire, the French Republic shall make an acquisition in Germany, His Majesty the Emperor, King of Hungary and of Bohemia, shall obtain an equivalent there, and conversely if His Royal and Imperial Majesty make an acquisition of this kind, the French Republic shall similarly receive an equivalent.
8. A territorial indemnity shall be given to the Prince of Nassau-Dietz, formerly Stadtholder of Holland, but this territorial indemnity shall not be chosen in the neighborhood of the Austrian possessions nor of the Batavian Republic.
9. The French Republic will find no trouble in restoring to the King of Prussia his possessions on the left bank of the Rhine. Hence there will be no question of any new acquisitions on the part of the King of Prussia. To this the contracting parties mutually pledge themselves.
10. If the King of Prussia consents to cede to the French Republic and to the Batavian Republic certain small portions of his possessions upon the left bank of the Meuse, as well as the enclave of Zevenaar and other possessions toward the Yssel, His Majesty the Emperor, King of Hungary and of Bohemia, will employ his good offices to render the said cessions practicable, and to cause them to be recognized by the German Empire. The failure to carry out the present article shall not affect the preceding one.
11. His Majesty the Emperor will not oppose the disposition which the French Republic has made in favor of the Ligurian Republic of the Imperial Fiefs. His Majesty the Emperor will unite his efforts with those of the French Republic to induce the German Empire to renounce such rights of suzerainty as it may have in Italy, especially over the districts which form a part of the Cisalpine and Ligurian Republics, as well as over the Imperial Fiefs, such as Lusignana and all those lying between Tuscany and the possessions of Parma, the Ligurian and Luccan Republics, and the former territory of Modena, the which fiefs shall form a part of the Cisalpine Republic.
12. His Majesty the Emperor, King of Hungary and of Bohemia, and the French Republic, will unite their efforts in order that, in negotiating peace with the German Empire, the different Princes and States of the Empire which shall suffer losses of territory and of rights in consequence of the stipulations of the present treaty of peace, or later, in consequence of the treaty which shall be concluded with the German Empire, shall obtain appropriate indemnities in Germany; which indemnities shall be determined in common accord with the French Republic. This applies especially to the Electors of Mainz, Trier and Cologne, the Elector Palatine of Bavaria. the Duke of Würtemburg and Teck, the Margrave of Baden, the Duke of Zweibrücken, the Landgraves of Hesse-Cassel and of Hesse-Darmstadt, the Princes of Nassau-Saarbrücken, of Salm-Kyrburg, Löwenstein-Wertheim and of Wiedrunkel and the Count of Leyen.
13. The troops of His Majesty the Emperor shall evacuate within twenty days after the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty, the city and fortress of Mainz, Ehrenbreit-stein, Phillippsburg, Maunheim, Königsstein, Ulm and Ingol-stadt, as well as all the territory belonging to the Germanic Empire as far as his hereditary possessions.
14. The present secret articles shall have the same force as if they were inserted word for word in the open treaty of peace signed today. These shall be ratified at the same time by the contracting parties and the acts of ratification shall be exchanged in due form at Rastadt.
Treaty of Luneville
Treaty of Peace, concluded at Lunéville, Feb. 9, 1801, between the French Republic and the Emperor and the Germanic Body.
His Majesty, the Emperor and King of Hungary and Bohemia, and the First Consul of the French Republic, in the name of the French people, having equally at heart to put an end to the miseries of war, have resolved to proceed to the conclusion of a definitive treaty of peace and amity. His said Imperial and Royal Majesty, not less anxiously desirous of making the Germanic Empire participate in the blessings of peace, and the present conjuncture not allowing the time necessary for the empire to be consulted, and to take part by its deputies in the negotiation; his said Majesty having, besides, regard to what has been agreed upon by the deputation of the empire at the preceding congress at Rastadt, has resolved, in conformity with the precedent of what has taken place in similar circumstances, to stipulate in the name of the Germanic body.
In consequence of which the contracting parties have appointed as their plenipotentiaries, to wit, His Imperial and Royal Majesty, the sieur Louis Cobentzel, Count of the Holy Roman Empire, Knight of the Golden Fleece, Grand Cross of the Royal Order of St Stephen and of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, chamberlain, and privy counsellor of his Imperial and Royal Majesty, his minister for conference, and vice-chancellor of court of state; And the First Consul of the French Republic, in the name of the French people, has appointed citizen Joseph Bonaparte, counsellor of state; who, after having exchanged their full powers, have agreed to the following articles:
Articles 1 and 2
Art. I. There shall be henceforth and for ever, peace, amity, and good understanding, between his Majesty the Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia, stipulating, as well in his own name as that of the Germanic Empire, and the French Republic, his said Majesty engaging to cause the empire to give ratification in good and due form to the present treaty. The greatest attention shall be paid on both sides to the maintenance of perfect harmony, to preventing all hostilities by land and by sea, for whatever cause, or on whatever pretence, and carefully endeavouring to maintain the union happily established. No assistance or protection shall be given, either directly or indirectly, to those who would do any thing to the prejudice of either of the contracting parties. II. The cession of the ci-devant Belgic provinces to the French Republic, stipulated by the 3d article of the treaty of Campo Formio, is renewed here in the most formal manner, so that his Imperial and Royal Majesty, for himself and his successors, as well in his own name as in that of the Germanic Empire, renounces all his right and title to the said provinces, which shall be possessed henceforth as its sovereign right and property by the French Republic, with all the territorial property dependant on it. There shall also be given up to the French Republic by his Imperial and Royal Majesty, and with the formal consent of the empire:
1st, The comté of Falkenstein, with its dependencies.
2d, The Frickthall, and all belonging to the house of
Austria on the left bank of the Rhine, between
Zarzach and Basle; the French Republic reserving
to themselves the right of ceding the latter country to the Helvetic Republic.
Articles 3 and 4
III. In the same manner, in renewal and confirmation of the 4th article of the treaty of Campo Formio, his Majesty the Emperor and King shall possess in sovereignty, and as his right, the countries below enumerated, viz. Istria, Dalmatia, and the çi-devant Venetian isles in the Adriatic dependant upon those countries, the Bocca de Cattaro, the city of Venice, the canals and the country included between the hereditary states of his Majesty the Emperor and King; the Adriatic sea, and the Adige, from its leaving the Tyrol to the mouth of the said sea; the towing path of the Adige serving as the line of limitation. And as by this line the cities of Verona and of Porto Legnano will be divided, there shall be established, on the middle of the bridges of the said cities, drawbridges to mark the separation. IV. The 18th article of the treaty of Campo Formio is also renewed thus far, that his Majesty the Emperor and King binds himself to yield to the Duke of Modena, as an indemnity for the countries which this prince and his heirs had in Italy, the Brisgau, which he shall hold on the same terms as those by virtue of which he possesses the Modenese.
Articles 5 and 6
V. It is moreover agreed, that his Royal Highness the Grand Duke of Tuscany shall renounce, for himself and his successors, having any right to it, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, and that part of the isle of Elba which is dependant upon it, as well as all right and title resulting from his rights on the said states, which shall be henceforth possessed in complete sovereignty, and as his own property, by his Royal Highness the infant Duke of Parma. The Grand Duke shall obtain in Germany a full and complete indemnity for his Italian states. The Grand Duke shall dispose at pleasure of the goods and property which he possesses in Tuscany, either by personal acquisition, or by descent from his late father, the Emperor Leopold II, or from his grandfather the Emperor Francis I. It is also agreed, that the credits, establishments and other property of the Grand Duchy, as well as the debts secured on the country, shall pass to the new Grand Duke. VI. His Majesty the Emperor and King, as well as in his own name as in that of the Germanic Empire, consents that the French Republic shall possess henceforth in complete sovereignty, and as their property, the country and domains situated on the left bank of the Rhine, and which formed part of the Germanic Empire: so that, in conformity with what had been expressly consented to at the congress of Rastadt, by the deputation of the empire, and approved by the Emperor, the Thalweg of the Rhine will henceforth be the limit between the French Republic and the Germanic Empire; that is to say, from the place where the Rhine leaves the Helvetic territory, to that where it enters the Batavian territory.
In consequence of this, the French Republic formally renounces all possession whatever on the right bank of the Rhine, and consents to restore to those whom it may belong, the fortresses of Dusseldorff, Ehrenbreitstein, Philipsburgh, the fort of Cassel, and other fortifications opposite to Mainz, on the right bank, the fort of Kehl, and Old Brisach, on the express condition that these places and fortresses shall continue and remain in the state in which they were at the time of their evacuation.
Articles 7 and 8
VII. And as, in consequence of the cession which the empire makes to the French Republic, several Princes and states of the empire will be dispossessed, either altogether or in part, whom it is incumbent upon the Germanic Empire collectively to support, the losses resulting from the stipulations in the present treaty, it is agreed between his Majesty the Emperor and King, as well in his own name as in that of the Germanic Empire, and the French Republic, that in conformity with the principles formally established at the congress of Rastadt, the empire shall be bound to give to the hereditary Princes who shall be dispossessed on the left bank of the Rhine, an indemnity, which shall be taken from the whole of the empire, according to arrangements which on these bases shall be ultimately determined upon. VIII. In all the ceded countries, acquired or exchanged by the present treaty, it is agreed, as had already been done by the 4th and 10th articles of the treaty of Campo Formio, that those to whom they shall belong shall take them, subject to the debts charged on the said countries; but considering the difficulties which have arisen in this respect, with regard to the interpretation of the said articles of the treaty of Campo Formio, it is expressly understood, that the French Republic will not take upon itself any thing more than the debts resulting from the loans formally agreed to by the states of the ceded countries, or by the actual administration of such countries.
Articles 9, 10 and 11
IX. Immediately after the change of the ratifications of the present treaty, the sequestration imposed on the property, effects, and revenues of the inhabitants or proprietors, shall be taken off. The contracting parties oblige themselves to pay all they may owe for money lent them by individuals, as well as by the public establishments of the said countries and to pay and reimburse all annuities created for their benefit on every one of them. In consequence of this, it is expressly admitted, that the holders of stock in the bank of Vienna, become French subjects, shall continue to enjoy the benefit of their funds, and shall receive the interest accrued, or to accrue, notwithstanding any sequestration, or any demand, derogatory to their rights, particularly notwithstanding the infringement which the holders aforesaid, become French subjects, sustained by not being able to pay the 30 and 100 percent demanded by his Imperial and Royal Majesty, of all creditors of the bank of Vienna.
X. The contracting parties shall also cause all the sequestrations to be taken off, which have been imposed on account of the war, on the property, the rights, and revenues of the Emperor, or of the empire, in the territory of the French Republic, and of the French citizens in the states of his said Majesty or the empire. XI. The present treaty of peace, and particularly the 8th, 9th, 10th, and 15th articles, are declared to extend to, and to be common to the Batavian, Helvetic, Cisalpine, and Ligurian Republics. The contracting parties mutually guarantee the independence of the said republics, and the right of the people who inhabit them to adopt what form of government they please.
Articles 12, 13, 14 and 15
XII. His Imperial and Royal Majesty renounces, for himself and his successors, in favour of the Cisalpine Republic, all rights and titles arising from those rights, which his Majesty might claim on the countries which he possessed before the war, and which, by the conditions of the 8th article of the treaty of Campo Formio, now form part of the Cisalpine Republic, which shall possess them as their sovereignty and property, with all the territorial property dependant upon it. XIII. His Imperial and Royal Majesty, as well in his own name as in that of the Germanic Empire, confirms the agreement already entered into by the treaty of Campo Formio, for the union of ci-devant imperial fiefs to the Ligurian Republic, and renounces all rights and titles arising from these rights on the said fiefs. XIV. In conformity with the 11th article of the treaty of Campo Formio, the navigation of the Adige, which serves as the limits between his Majesty the Emperor and King, and the navigation of the rivers in the Cisalpine Republic, shall be free, nor shall any toll be imposed, nor any ship of war kept there. XV. All prisoners of war on both sides, as well as hostages given or taken during the war, who shall not be yet restored, shall be so within forty days from the time of signing of the present treaty.
Articles 16, 17, 18 and 19
XVI. The real and personal property unalienated of his Royal Highness the Archduke Charles, and of the heirs of her royal highness the Archduchess Christina, deceased, situated in the countries ceded to the French Republic, shall be restored to them on condition of their selling them within three years. The same shall be the case also with the real and personal property of their Royal Highnesses the Archduke Ferdinand and the Archduchess Beatrice, his wife, in the territory of the Cisalpine Republic. XVII. The 12th, 13th, 15th, 16th, 17th, and 27th articles of the treaty of Campo Formio, are particularly renewed, and are to be executed according to their form and effect, as if they were here repeated verbatim. XVIII. The contributions, payments, and war impositions, of whatever kind, shall cease from the day of the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty on the one hand, by his Imperial Majesty and the Germanic Empire, and on the other by the French Republic. XIX. The present treaty shall be ratified by his Majesty the Emperor and King, by the empire, and by the French Republic, in the space of thirty days, or sooner if possible; and it is agreed that the armies of the two powers shall remain in their present positions, both in Germany and in Italy, until the ratification shall be respectively, and at the same moment, exchanged at Lunéville.
It is also agreed, that ten days after the exchange of the ratifications, the armies of his Imperial and Royal Majesty shall enter the hereditary possessions, which shall, within the same space of time, be evacuated by the French armies; and thirty days after the said ratifications shall be exchanged, the French armies shall evacuate the whole of the territory of the said empire. Executed at Lunéville, Feb. 9, 1801
Treaty of Amiens
Definitive Treaty of Peace between the French Republic, his Majesty the King of Spain and the Indies, and the Batavian Republic (on the one Part); and his Majesty, the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (on the other Part).
The first consul of the French republic, in the name of the French people, and his majesty the king of the united kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, being equally animated with a desire to put an end to the calamities of war, have laid the foundation of peace, by the preliminary articles, which were signed in London the 9th Vendemaire, (or the first of 0ctober 1801).
And as by the 15th article of the preliminaries it has been agreed on, "that plenipotentiaries should named on the part of each government, who should repair to Amiens, and there proceed to arrange a definitive treaty, in concert with the allies of the contracting powers."
The first consul of the French republic, in the name of the French people, has named as plenipotentiary the citizen Joseph Buonaparte, counsellor of state:
His majesty the king of the united kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland has named the marquis Cornwallis, knight of the most noble order of the garter, one of his majesty's privy council, general in his majesty's army, &c. &c.
His majesty the king of Spain and the Indies, and the government of the Batavian republic, have appointed the following plenipotentiaries, to wit, his catholic majesty has named Don Joseph Nicolas d'Azara, his counsellor of state, grand cross of the order of Charles III..ambassador extraordinary of his majesty to the French republic &c. &c.:
And the government of the Batavian republic, Jean Schimmelpenninck its ambassador extraordinary to the French republic, &c.:
Which said plenipotentiaries having duly communicated to each other their respective Powers, which are transcribed at the conclusion of the present treaty, have agreed the following articles:
There shall be peace, friendship, and good understanding between the French republic, his majesty the king of Spain, his heirs and successors, and the Batavian republic, on the one part, and his majesty the king of the united kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, his heirs and successors, on the other part.
The contracting parties shall use their utmost efforts to preserve a perfect harmony between their respective countries, without permitting any act of hostility whatever by sea or by land, for any cause, or under any pretext.
They shall carefully avoid every thing which might for the future disturb the happy union now re-established between them, and stall not give any succour or protection, directly or indirectly, to those who wish to injure any of them.
All the prisoners made on one side and the other, as well by land as by sea, and the hostages carried off, or delivered up during the war, and up to the present day, shall be restored without ransom in six weeks at the latest, to be reckoned from the day when the ratifications of the present treaty are exchanged, and on paying the debts which they shall have contracted during their captivity. Each of the contracting parties shall respectively discharge the advances which shall have been made by any of the contracting parties, for the support and maintenance of prisoners in the countries where they have been detained. There shall be appointed by mutual consent for this purpose a commission, especially empowered to ascertain and determine the compensation which may be due to any one of the contracting parties...The time and the place shall likewise be fixed, by mutual consent, for the meeting of the commissioners, who shall be entrusted with the execution of this article, and who shall take into account, not only the expenses incurred on account of the prisoners of the respective nations, but likewise on account of the foreign troops, who, before being taken, were in the pay, and at the disposal of one of the contracting parties.
His Britannic majesty restores to the French republic and its allies, viz. his Catholic majesty and the Batavian republic, all the possessions and colonies which respectively belonged to them, and which have been either occupied or conquered by the British forces, during the course of the present war, with the exception of the island of Trinidad, and of the Dutch possessions on the island of Ceylon.
His Catholic majesty cedes and guarantees, in full property and sovereignty, the island of Trinidad to his Britannic majesty.
The Batavian republic cedes and guarantees, in full property and sovereignty, to his Britannic majesty, all the possessions and establishments in the island of Ceylon, which previous to the war belonged to the republic of the united provinces, or to the Dutch East India company.
The port of the Cape of Good Hope remains to the Batavian republic in full sovereignty, in the same manner as it did previous to the war.
The ships of every kind belonging to the other contracting parties, shall be allowed to enter the said ports, and there to purchase what provisions they may stand in need of heretofore, without being liable to pay any other imposts than such as the Batavian republic compels the ships of its own nation to pay.
The territories and possessions of his most Faithful majesty are maintained in their integrity, such as they were antecedent to the war. However the boundaries of French and Portuguese Guiana are fixed by the river Arrowary, which empties itself into the ocean above Cape North, near the islands Nuovo and Penetentia, about a degree and a third of north latitude. These boundaries shall run along the river Arrowary, from its mouth, the most distant from Cape North, to its source, and afterwards on a right line, drawn from that source, to the Rio Brunco, towards the west.
In consequence, the northern bank of the river Arrowary, from its said mouth to its source, and the territories that lie to the north of the line of boundaries laid down as above, shall belong in full sovereignty to the French republic.
The southern bank of the said river, from the same mouth, and all the territories to the south of the said line, shall belong to her most Faithful majesty.
The navigation of the river Arrowary, along the whole of its course, shall be common to both nations.
The arrangements which have been agreed upon between the courts of Madrid and Lisbon, respecting the settlement of their boundaries in Europe, shall nevertheless be adhered to conformably to the stipulations of the treaty of Badajos.
The territories, possessions, and rights of the sublime Porte, are maintained in their integrity, as they were before the war.
The republic of the Seven Islands is recognised.
The islands of Malta, Gozo, and Comino, shall be restored to the order of St. John of Jerusalem to be held on the same conditions, on which it possessed them before the war, and under the following stipulations.
1. The knights of the order whose Langues shall continue to subsist after the exchange of the ratification of the present treaty, are invited to return to Malta, as soon as the exchange shall have taken place. They shall there form a general chapter, and proceed to the election of a grand master, chosen from among the natives of those nations which are to preserve their Langues, unless that election has been already made since the exchange of the preliminaries.
It is understood that an election made subsequent to that epoch, shall alone be considered valid, to the exclusion of any other that have taken place at any period prior to that epoch.
2. The governments of the French republic, and of Great Britain, desiring to place the order and island of Malta in a state of entire independence with respect to themselves, agree that there shall not be in future either a French or an English Langue; and that no individual belonging to either the one or to the other of these powers shall be admitted into the order.
3. There shall be established a Maltese Langue, which shall be supported by the territorial revenues and commercial duties of the island. This Langue shall have its peculiar dignities, an establishment and a mansion-house. Proofs of nobility shall not be necessary for the admission of knights of the Langue; and they shall be moreover admissible to all offices, and shall enjoy all privileges, in the same manner as the knights of the other Langues. At least half of the municipal, administrative, civil, judicial, and other employments depending on the government, shall be filled by inhabitants of the islands of Malta, Gozo, and Comino.
4. The forces of his Britannic majesty shall evacuate the island, and its dependencies, within three months from the exchange of the ratifications, or sooner if possible. At that epoch it shall be given up to the order in its present state, provided the grand master, or commissaries, fully authorized according to the statutes of the order, shall be in the island to take possession, and that the force which is to be provided by his Sicilian majesty, as is hereafter stipulated, shall have arrived there.
5. One half of the garrison at least shall always be composed of native Maltese; for the remainder, the order may levy recruits in those countries only which continue to possess the Langues. The Maltese troops shall have Maltese officers. The commandership in chief of the garrison, as well as the nomination of the officers, shall pertain to the grand master, and this right he cannot resign even temporarily, except in favour of a knight, and in concurrence with the advice of the council of the order.
6. The independence of the isles Malta, of Gozo, and Comino, as well as the present arrangement, shall be placed under the protection and guarantee of France, Great Britain, Austria, Spain, Russia, and Prussia.
7. The neutrality of the order and of the island of Malta, with its dependencies, is hereby proclaimed.
8. The ports of Malta shall be opened to the commerce and the navigation of all nations, who shall there pay equal and moderate duties : these duties shall be applied to the maintenance of the Maltese Langue, as specified in paragraph 3, to that of the civil and military establishments of the island, as well as to that of a general lazaret, open to all colours.
9. The states of Barbary are excepted from the conditions of the preceding paragraphs, until, by means of an arrangement to be procured by the contracting parties, the system of hostilities, which subsists between the states of Barbary, and the order of St. John, or the powers possessing the Langue, or concurring in the composition of the order, shall have ceased.
10. The order shall be governed, both with respect to spirituals and temporals, by the same statutes which were in force when the knights left the isle, as far as the present treaty does not abrogate them.
11. The regulations contained in the paragraphs 3, 5, 7, 8, and 10, shall be converted into laws ,and perpetual statutes of the order, in the customary manner; and the grand master, or, if he shall not be in the island, at the time of its restoration to the order, his representative, as well as his successors, shall be bound to take an oath for their punctual observance.
12. His Sicilian majesty shall be invited to furnish 2000 men, natives of his states, to serve as a garrison in the different fortresses of the said islands. That force shall remain one year, to bear date from their restitution to the knights; and if, at the expiration of this term, the order should not have raised a force sufficient, in the judgement of the guarantying powers to garrison the island and its dependencies, as is specified in the 5th paragraph, the Neapolitan troops shall continue there until they shall be replaced by a force deemed sufficient by the said powers.
13. The different powers designated in the 6th paragraph, to wit, France, Great Britain, Austria, Spain, Russia, and Prussia, shall be invited to accede to the present stipulations.
The French troops shall evacuate the kingdom of Naples and the Roman states; the English forces shall also evacuate Porto Ferrajo, and generally all the ports and islands, that they occupy in the Mediterranean or the Adriatic.
The evacuations, cessions, and restitutions, stipulated by the present treaty, shall be executed in Europe within a month; on the continent and seas of America and Africa in three months; on the continent and seas of Asia in six months, which shall follow the ratification of the present definitive treaty, except in case of a special reservation.
In all cases of restitution, agreed upon by the present treaty, the fortifications shall be restored in the condition they were in at the time of signing the preliminiaries; and all the works which shall have been constructed since their occupation shall remain untouched.
It is agreed besides that in all the stipulated cases of cessions, there shall be allowed to the inhabitants, of whatever rank or nation they may be, a term of three years, reckoning from the notification of the present treaty, to dispose of all their properties, whether acquired by them before or during the continuance of the present war; during which term of three years, they shall have free and entire liberty to exercise their religion, and to enjoy their fortunes. The same power is granted in the countries that are hereby restored, to all persons, whether inhabitants or not, who shall have formed any establishments there, during the time that those countries were in the possession of Great Britain.
As to the inhabitants of the countries restored or ceded, it is hereby agreed, that no person shall, under any pretence, be prosecuted, disturbed, or molested, either in person or property, on account of his political conduct or opinion, or for his attachment to any of the contracting parties, on any account whatever except for debts contracted with individuals, or for acts subsequent to the present treaty.
All the sequestrations laid on either side on funds, revenues, and credits, of what nature soever they may be, belonging to any of the contracting powers, or to their citizens or subjects, shall be taken off immediately after the signature of this definitive treaty.
The decision of all chains among the individuals of the respective nations, for debts, property, effects, or rights, of any nature whatsoever, which should, according to received usages, and the law of nations, be preferred at the epoch of the peace shall be referred to the competent tribunals: in all those cases speedy and complete justice shall be done in the countries wherein those claims shall be respectively preferred.
The fisheries on the coasts of Newfoundland, and of the adjacent islands, and in the gulf of St. Laurence, are placed on the same footing as they were before the war.
The French fishermen of Newfoundland, and the inhabitants of the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon, shall have liberty, to cut such wood as may be necessary for them in the bays of Fortune and Despair during the first year, reckoning from the ratification of the present treaty.
To prevent all grounds of complaint and disputes which might arise on account of captures which may have been made at sea subsequent to the signing of the preliminaries, is reciprocally agreed that the ships and property which may have been taken in the channel, and in the north seas, after a space of twelve days, reckoning from the exchange of the ratifications of the preliminary articles, shall be restored on the one side and the other; that the term shall be one month for the space, from the channel and the north seas, as far as the Canary islands inclusively, as well in the ocean as in the Mediterranean; two months from the Canary island to the equator; and, finally five months in all other parts of the world, without any further exceptions or distinction of time or place.
The ambassadors, ministers, and other agents of the contracting powers, shall enjoy respectively in the states of the said powers the same rank, privileges, prerogative, and immunities, which were enjoyed before the war by agents of the same class.
The branch of the house of Nassau, which was established in the ci-devant republic of the united provinces, now the Batavian republic, having experienced some losses, as well with respect to private property as by the change of constitution adopted in those countries, an equivalent compensation shall be procured for the losses which it shall be proved to have sustained.
The present definitive treaty of Peace is declared common to the sublime Ottoman Porte, the ally, of his Britannic majesty; and the sublime Porte shall be invited to transmit its act of accession as soon as possible.
It is agreed that the contracting parties, upon requisitions made by them respectively, or by their ministers, or officers duly authorized for that purpose, shall be bound to deliver up to justice persons accused of' murder, forgery, or fraudulent bankruptcy, committed within the jurisdiction of the requiring party, provided that this shall only be done in cases in which tile evidence of the crime shall be such, that the laws of the place in which the accused persons shall be discovered, would have authorized the detaining and bringing him to trial, had the offence been committed there. The expenses of the arrest and prosecution shall be defrayed by the party making the requisition; but this article has no sort of reference to crimes of murder, forgery, or fraudulent bankruptcy, committed before the conclusion of this definitive treaty.
The contracting parties promise to observe sincerely and faithfully all the articles contained in the present treaty, and will not suffer any sort of counteraction, direct or indirect, to be made to it by their citizens, or respective subjects; and the contracting parties guaranty, generally and reciprocally, all the stipulations of the present treaty.