Does any one have any pictures and details of the 3pdr mountain guns used by the British in the Pyrenees campaigns of 1813.
Nick Lipscombe [Bayonne and Toulouse 1813-14], states, "three half brigades of mountain guns [3x3-pdr each demi brigade] one permanently with the Light Division".
Were they carried, broken down, on mules?
Were they maned by the Horse or Foot artillery?
Thank you in advance.
Another excellent reference is Nick Lipscombe's Wellington's Guns. References to mountain artillery can be found on pages 25, 28, 266, 267-268, 329, 334-335.
Amazon.com: Wellington's Guns: The Untold Story of Wellington and his Artillery in the Peninsula and at Waterloo (General Military) (8601200697131): Books
Do you have access to the excellent British Napoleonic Field Artillery by CE Franklin? Mountain artillery is covered in Chapter 8, 155-168. There is also an illustration of the mule loads for a 3-pounder mountain gun on page 166.
If you have access to the Dickson Manuscripts that would also be of great help.
From Dickson, as quoted in British Napoleonic Field Artillery, 167:
'...you ask my opinion respecting mountain guns. As yet we have not tried them much, but for general purposes I think it may be said, they are more useful from the confidence they give men, than from their own effect, which it is evident must be very uncertain except when employed at very short ranges; soldiers like the noise of Artillery; it gives them confidence when employed in their support, with however little effect, and in like manner it disquiets them when brought against them, and although the shot only pass over their heads, still they are not able well to judge how high, and feel that if they remain in the same position the practice may become more annoying. Were armies from a peculiarity of Mountain Country, obliged to wage war for a length of time without being able to employ any other ordnance than the small pieces termed Mountain Guns, I have no doubt that the soldiers would very soon learn the inefficacy and uncertainty of these pieces when employed at a distance, and would grow indifferent about them...It is also to be observed that the report of small guns in a Mountainous Country appears louder, which serves to add to the illusion. In attack, therefore, I think columns should always in mountain war be supported by Mountain Guns if no other can be employed. The troops advancing are entertained by their noise, and the force attacked are incommoded by it, but when the attack becomes close the Ordnance of the defenders is then of real efficacy when probably the Guns of the assailants have not been able to keep pace with their columns. I therefore think that either party would labor under a disadvantage were they without the mountain guns. However, their utility may be confined to stage effect in a great degree. In thus approving of their employment, I would recommend at the same time that it should be as limited as possible, and every exertion should be made to bring forward heavier ordnance...To return to mountain guns, I have two kinds; one carried on Mules, the other single draught. The former kind galls, and indeed ruins many animals, and the only advantage it possesses over the other is that the Ordnance can be conveyed by the narrowest footpaths, and up the most difficult steeps. The gun in draught does not injure the animals; it is much easier to bring into action; it can retire quicker, and as it will admit of being of greater length, its practice will be more exact than the other. I think these kind [draught] of guns might be useful in a close or woody country with Light troops...'-Alexander Dickson, 1,120.
The mule loads were divided into wheels, gun carriage, gun tube, ammunition (the ammunition being loaded on more than one mule) per one piece. The sidearms for the piece were carried with the wheels.
The British used their own 3-pounder mountain guns as well as captured French 3-pounder pieces. Captured pieces were assigned in 1813 to Lieutenant Robe and desigated as the 1st Mountain Brigade. Three more 3-pounders were sent to the brigade from Lisbon. The brigade was disbanded at the end of the campaign.
Robe's command had both RA gunners as well as Portuguese artillerymen and troops assigned to the brigade from the Corps of Drivers. They were undoubtedly foot artillerymen.
A Portuguese mountain brigade was also formed later, manned by Portuguese artillerymen and British drivers. It was also 'equipped' with mules.
The volume can be found here:
Amazon.com: British Napoleonic Field Artillery (9780752476520): Franklin, C. E.: Books
The five volumes of the Dickson Manuscripts can be found at Ken Trotman's book service.
Volume I can be found here:
The Dickson Manuscripts: Being Diaries, Letters, Maps, Account Books, with ... - Sir Alexander Dickson - Google Books
Has a whole chapter (chapter 8) on 3lb Field and Mountain Guns. 13 pages including 7 pages of black and white illustrations. Equipment covered: The Desaguliers heavy 3pdr of 6ft The light common 3pdr of 3ft 6” The Blomefield light or mountain 3pdr of 3ft The Blonefield 3pdr of 4 feet Lord Townsend’s Light Infantry 3pdr of 3ft There is a six paragraph section on mountain brigades. There is a scaled line drawing of Cuppage’s Design of a 3pdr broken down to suit a mule. Would this be the kind of thing you are looking for? If you can’t get access to this work, let me know what you would like from it, and I’ll see what I can do.