Réseaux maçonniques et para-maçonniques des officiers de la Grande Armée engagés dans les mouvements nationaux et libéraux
Numerous Napoleonic officers take part in national and liberal actions after 1815. Their commitment in uprisings of Mediterranean area (Italy, Spain, Greece) comes in underground networks. Free masonry seems to stay a mind society among engaged officers (Sparte and Athens’ children in Greece). But freemasonry’s neutrality prevents her from becoming a network of commitment. That’s why officers join rites more politicized (Temple’s knights by example) and above all, secret societies. Their importance is real (Federated in Piedmont) but they don’t have any unity. Some people try to link these societies in Europe. Buonarroti makes membership of Sublime Perfect Masters into radical seal. Pepe manage carboneria. As Buonarroti, Pepe never reach to organize a real liberal netwok in Europe.