París Martín, Álvaro (Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès)
The European Ancien Régime ended in a context of civil war, in which the popular sectors embraced a new relationship with politics. The role played in this process by counterrevolutionary and royalist militias, has received less attention from historian than their revolutionary counterparts. I will first provide an overview of European royalist militias. Then I will focus on three of these forces, created during the Restorations in Naples (1799), France (1815) and Spain (1823). Finally, from these particular cases, I will offer a comparative approach on the role of arms in counterrevolutionary political participation across Europe.